BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING
http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique
Scientific labours issue contains researches results in industrial problems connecting with theoretical principles creation of modern radio engineering and apparatus radiobuilding; science and technology achievements practical realization; intellectualization of planning processes and production.<br /><br />It is offered to research workers, engineers, businessmen of radioindustry, professors, graduate students, students of radioelectronic specialities.en-USradap@rtf.kpi.ua (Oleg Sharpan)mosichuk@ua.fm (Vitaliy Mosiychuk)Fri, 30 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0300OJS 2.4.7.1http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss60The Method of Bandwidth Extension of SiGe BiCMOS Microwave Variable-Gain Amplifier Integrated Circuit
http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1400
The article proposes a method of bandwidth extension of the analog integrated circuit of the variable-gain amplifier (VGA) based on SiGe BiCMOS technology with the rules of 0.18 µm. The designed VGA has a linear (in dB) control characteristic. The authors consider the VGA architecture and present its design outputs. They describe the properties of two modifications of the VGA integrated circuit – with classical correction of the response and with the circuit of the parasitic capacitance cancellation in the high-impedance node. The article shows that the second circuit solution allows increasing the upper frequency limit of the VGA by a factor of 1.8-2.Savchenko, E. M., Budiakov, A. S., Budiakov, P. S., Prokopenko, N. N.
Copyright (c) 2017 Savchenko Е. М., Budiakov А. S., Budiakov P. S., Prokopenko N. N.
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http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1400Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:22:07 +0300Open type coaxial sensor. Integral equation of the electric field in the aperture plane
http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1380
<strong>Introduction</strong>. The open end of a coaxial line has good prospects of usage as a sensor for devices of flexi monitoring of parameters of materials in the microwave range. Its exact mathematical description requires the definition of the field in any section.<br /> <strong>Integral equation</strong>. A rigorous integral equation for the radial component of the electric field in the plane aperture is obtained. The technique of obtaining this equation is based on the method of partial areas and boundary conditions for magnetic components. The criteria of using the approximation of the given field and possibilities of the solution normalization are shown.<br /> <strong>Conclusions</strong>. The obtained technique can be distributed to solving problems a wide class of axissymmetric microwave devices. It is the basis of further analysis of their parameters and practical calculation. Information on the normalization summarize the results and will be useful in the selecting designs of sensors.Chang, Liu, Panchenko, A. Yu., Slipchenko, N. I., Zaichenko, O. B.
Copyright (c) 2017 Chang Liu, Panchenko A. Yu., Slipchenko N.I., Zaichenko O. B.
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http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1380Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:22:11 +0300Power distribution in the electromagnetic field. Portions of energy flows. portions energy
http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1401
New concepts of the phase velocity of the energy flux density, the phase velocity of the energy density, the concept of a portion of the energy flux density, portions of the energy density are introduced. The entered values shed light on the energy distribution of the electromagnetic field of a harmonic wave in space, the nature of an electromagnetic wave, the process of energy transfer by an electromagnetic wave.<br /> The energy of an electromagnetic wave is propagated in portions (quanta, in a non-modern sense of the word). It is shown that the phase velocity is a physically understandable quantity - the speed of propagation of portions of the energy flow, energy portions. The process of energy transfer is a wave process moving with a velocity equal to the phase velocity of the field components, the Poynting vector, the energy and energy density. The flow of the Poynting vector does not arise from zero. One serving leaves (shifts in the direction of spreading), another one comes into its place.<br /> The continuity of the energy flow should be interpreted as the continuity of the flow of portions of energy, the continuity of the flow of mean value.<br /> The reduced results, simple from the mathematical and physical points of view, become more complicated when considering more complicated processes, for example, waves excited by a Hertz dipole.Naidenko, V. I.
Copyright (c) 2017 Naidenko, Victor I.
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http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1401Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:22:12 +0300Application of the "Endless train" method for the SDN controller OpenDayLight
http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1357
Application of the "Endless train" method for the SDN controller OpenDayLight. Using the cloud for software defined networks opens new possibilities for the organization of computing processes of network controllers. Methods of virtual entities maintenance in a cloud environment allow counting on relatively infinite computing resources of the cloud service called Platform as a Service. Today it is possible to evaluate the degree of utilization of computing resources for the software controller operation only theoretically. The article considers the possibility of using an "endless train" method for virtualization of individual functional opportunities of SDN OpenDayLight controller. This method allows to organize controller computer processes caused by the need to serve the dynamically changing stream of user applications, such as initialization of the flow or the organization of virtual networks. In the section "Architecture and basic features SDN controller" the main components and functionality of the controller OpenDayLight were described. The method of "endless train" for the distribution of tasks between virtual machines and possibility of its use for various functions of the OpenDayLight controller were considered in the section "The method of "endless train" for the organization of the computational process SDN”. In the next section "Description of the experiment" the results of simulation modeling of proposed method to study its effectiveness are presented.Skulysh, M. A.
Copyright (c) 2017 Skulysh M. A.
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http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1357Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:22:13 +0300Calculation Model for Optoelectronic Remote Sensing System’s Radiometric Resolution at Arbitrary Viewing Angles
http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1403
<strong>Introduction</strong>. One of the urgent problems, which are facing developers of satellite optoelectronic remote sensing systems (ORSS), is to improve the images quality. Image quality is determined, above all, by its radiometric resolution, which means minimum difference between brightness or reflectivity of object and background, which can be detected by ORSS with a given probability. Modern ORSS make possible viewing angle deviation, which causes significant image distortions.<br /> <strong>Formulation of the problem</strong>. The purpose of the paper is to develop physical and mathematical radiometric resolution model of satellite remote sensing optoelectronic systems at arbitrary sight angles.<br /> <strong>Video signal formation model and radiometric resolution study</strong>. Solar radiation that is reflected from the Earth's surface on which the object of observation is placed, passes through atmosphere and enters into transmitting camera lens. The lens forms image of the object and the background radiation in the detector plane. Detector converts illuminance distribution to electric signal, which forms video signal after scanning. The object of observation has uniform spectral reflectance over its size and its angular size is much bigger than ORSS instantaneous field of view. The object is situated on Earth’s surface with uniform spectral reflection coefficient. Both object and background reflect light on Lambert's law. An example of ORSS radiometric resolution calculation<strong> </strong>model was considered.<br /> <strong>Conclusions</strong>. On the basis of proposed optoelectronic remote sensing system model there was developed method of determination its radiometric resolution at arbitrary angles of sight. Study of the model showed that, increasing of viewing angle significantly deteriorates optoelectronic system spatial resolution while the radiometric resolution is unchanged.Kolobrodov, V. H., Lykholit, M. I., Mykytenko, V. I., Tiagur, V. M., Dobrovolska, K. V.
Copyright (c) 2017 Kolobrodov, V. H., Lykholit, M. I., Mykytenko, V. I., Tiagur, V. M., Dobrovolska, K. V.
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http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1403Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:22:13 +0300Availability estimation of navigation aids
http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1398
Ground network of waypoints has been commonly used for different navigation tasks. Detection and positioning of aircraft location line in 3D airspace are the most important of them. Aircraft location determination by signals from ground-based waypoints is a part of alternative positioning algorithms in flight management system. A new method of radio navigation aids availability in particular airspace volume has been represented in paper. It includes cylindrical model of NAVAIDS service volume according to three basic types: Terminal, Low altitude and High Altitude. Proposed method uses digital elevation model of terrain data for detection of radio sight line and availability estimation in 3D space of NAVAIDS. The simple model of diffraction process was considered to increase accuracy of the method. However, diffraction model has been used only for peaks of relief. Represented method has been used for availability areas estimation of VOR and DME waypoints network for Ukrainian airspace. Availability areas of waypoints were highlighted in contour lines according to data in Aeronautical Information Publication. Also, the total number of NAVAIDS combination was estimated and indicated in contour graph for region.Ostroumov, I. V.
Copyright (c) 2017 Ostroumov I. V.
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http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1398Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:22:14 +0300Adaptive filtration of parameters of the movement UAV according to sensor networks based on measurements of the received signal strength
http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1385
<strong>Introduction</strong>. In modern conditions increasingly important begin to play unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), which give rise to a new class of threats. This leads to the need to develop security systems that solve tasks of detection, location and motion parameters of the UAV. At the radiation of the UAV of signals, his location can be defined by wireless sensor networks using the method of RSS (received-signal strength). Changing the type of UAV motion occurs at random times. At intervals of hovering and motion of the UAV without a maneuver it is possible to significantly improve the accuracy of estimation of its coordinates. Thus, in practice, it is often of interest to determine the types of UAV motion.<br /> <strong>Statement of the problem</strong>. UAV movement with different types of maneuver in a rectangular coordinate system is described by a stochastic dynamical system with random structure in discrete time. For definition of location of the UAV on the plane the wireless sensor network has to consist of three or more sensors. When using the RSS method, the model of direct distribution of a signal which considers only his attenuation is used. Required to synthesize an adaptive algorithm of a filtration of parameters of the movement UAV according to the sensor network.<br /> <strong>The main part</strong>. The optimum algorithm of the adaptive filtering is recurrent and describes evolution of posteriori probability density of the expanded mixed Markov process including a continuously valued vector of parameters of movement of the UAV and the discrete valued variable of switching describing type of its movement. The optimum device realizing an algorithm is multichannel with number of channels M and belongs to the class of devices with feedback between channels. Existence of feedback between channels is caused by Markov property of a discrete component.<br /> In obtained by linearization of the equation of measurements of the quasi-optimal algorithm of adaptive filter are calculated first and second moments aposteriori conditional distributions of the vector of motion parameters of the UAV and it allows to keep the representation of the a posteriori probability density of the continuous component as a sum of M Gaussian densities of probabilities. It implements a parallel procedure perform calculations when entering measurements from sensors of a sensor network. The quasioptimum device realizing an algorithm also is multichannel with number of channels M and generally keeps the structure and feedback inherent in the optimum device.<br /> <strong>Analysis of the effectiveness of the algorithm</strong>. Analysis of the effectiveness of the developed algorithm for estimating the parameters of motion of the UAV with the discovery of the maneuver was conducted using the statistical modeling. The sensor network is composed of eight sensors. For descriptive reasons works of an algorithm the test trajectory of the movement UAV has been created. A comparison of the accuracy characteristics of the considered algorithms with the lower bound of Rao-Cramer is carried out.<br /> For the considered model example, the use of trajectory filtering allows to reduce the MSD error of the positioning of the UAV compared with the MSD error of the positioning method RSS in 2 – 4 times. Compared with Kalman filter based on the model, motion of the UAV to maneuver, developed an adaptive algorithm allows to improve the location accuracy in areas hovering and motion without maneuver more than 2-3 times to avoid systematic errors estimates. At the same time the adaptive filter allows to recognize a freeze and nearly uniform motion of a UAV with a probability close to one.<br /> <strong>Conclusions</strong>. On the basis of the mixed Markov processes in discrete time optimum and quasioptimum adaptive algorithms a filtration of parameters of the movement UAV according to sensor network on the basis of measurement of power of the accepted signal are synthesized. Realizing their devices, are multichannel and belongs to the class of devices with feedback between channels. At the same time in them the parallel procedure of performance of calculations at receipt of measurements from sensors network is realized. The analysis of a quasioptimum algorithm is made by means of statistical modeling on the computer.Tovkach, I. O., Zhuk, S. Ya.
Copyright (c) 2017 Tovkach I. O., Zhuk S. Yа.
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http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1385Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:22:14 +0300Temperature stability of ultra low voltage signals multiplier
http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1394
The paper considers the thermal stability of ultra low voltage signals multipliers that form the basis of discrete-analog programmable filter-correlators. These correlators perform convolution vector of the input signal samples and a sequence of weighting coefficients impulse function. These coefficients take two values: +1 or -1. The multiplier is based on a MOS transistor. The first factor appears voltage signal sampling, which is stored on the gate of the transistor, and the second is determined by the location where the current of the transistor will be sent, which is the result of multiplying. In this case, the weighting factor is one that will be sent to the current summing bus "positive" current, and the pulse rate function determines -1 multiplier connection summing bus "negative" current. The final result of multiplication of vectors is generated by subtracting the output signals weighted summation of tires. Alternatively this conversion can be output currents to two outer transducers voltage differential signal current and formation voltage as an output voltage. Since the MOSFET current is subject to temperature dependence, this factor affects the accuracy of multiplication. Analysis of this relationship and the possibility of its weakening presented in this paper. In particular, the strategy of linear and non-linear approximation to the thermostable point is proposed. An analytical relationship is obtained for the necessary conditions for temperature stabilization. For the non-linear approximation strategy, a circuit with a nonlinear element-a bipolar transistor-is proposed. Experimental results of improving the temperature stabilization for both strategies are obtained.Pavlov, L. M., Lebedev, D. Yu.
Copyright (c) 2017 Павлов Л.М., Лебедев Д.Ю.
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http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1394Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:22:15 +0300System Choice of Optimal Technological 3D MID Solution
http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1395
<strong>Modern General statement of a problem</strong>. Modern Three-Dimensional Molded Interconnect Devices (3D-MID) technology of injection-molded thermoplastic circuit carriers with structured circuit traces has proved to be an effective way to solve the problem of increasing active component density by integration of interconnections into a package. Technology has many variants of realization with specific intrinsic strengths and weaknesses Due to a contradictory character of requirements to technical and economic characteristics of technological solution; choice of the last is not unambiguous. As a matter of fact, today one has no formalized methodology of such choice realization under different terms of a decision-making situation. The aim of this research was to develop an effective methodology of technological process choice for either defined devices manufacturing or organization of new business in accordance with possibilities and aims of developer and customer.<br /> <strong>Main results of research</strong>. 3D-MID technologies as well as possibilities of optimal 3D-MID technology choice according to Thomas Peitz’ methodology of properties cards are analysed. After analysis results the extension of the list of technological process base properties from eight to sixteen is suggested, providing the opportunity of taking into account certain important features of MID technology introduction. It is also proposed to use the combined properties cards of several preliminary selected MID technologies for visualization of their strengths and weaknesses and simplifying the decision-making procedure of the best-fit process for the MID basic solution. Several versions of such combined cards applying the extended characteristic set are built for the different situations of initial choice.<br /> <strong>Conclusions and recommendations</strong>. The described methodology simplifies the choice of 3D MID process according to specific production potentialities, producer tasks and customer requirements.Hlinenko, L. K., Fast, V. M.
Copyright (c) 2017 Гліненко, Лариса Костянтинівна, Фаст, Володимир Миколайович
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http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1395Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:22:15 +0300Photometric Absorbance Spectrum Analyzer of Slightly Transparent Biomaterials
http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1384
<strong>Introduction</strong>. The measurement of optical radiation, especially the intensity of the light flux passing through biological tissues or other slightly transparent (cloudy) materials and the environments is a challenging problem due to the extensive development of new light sources of different wavelengths and their use in various fields of human activity. It is important to provide high sensitivity and accuracy measurement of the output parameters of light fluxes passing through the studied material - the depth of penetration, attenuation coefficient or absorption. The known methods and devices do not provide the required sensitivity and accuracy of measuring parameters.<br /> <strong>Main body</strong>. The aim of this study is to develop a photometric spectrum analyzer where along with the simplification of the scheme and increasing sensitivity and measurement accuracy the score of penetration depth of light flux into biological or other slightly transparent material, the determination of the attenuation coefficient and the spectrogram construction based on the analysis of two signals separated by wavelength light sources is ensured. One of the ways to increase the sensitivity and accuracy of the measurement devices is to use modulating method of the output signals transformation. Implementation of this method provides a significant reduction of the proper noises of the transformation signal path. Figure 1 shows a functional diagram of the developed by the authors device based on modulating transformation of the optical signal. It provides the measurement of the slightly transparent materials absorbance with increasing sensitivity and accuracy.<br /> <strong>Conclusions</strong>. Considered possibilities greatly simplify the measurement process. The use of the modulating transformation of the light flux provides increase in sensitivity in the measurement accuracy because such transformation compensates the intrinsic noise level and noise of the measurement channel. The semiconductor matrix is used as the light source. It provides accommodation of two crystals at one point of light diodes with the most spaced wavelengths allowing them to be placed on the same axis with photocell and excludes collateral scattering of the light flux.Yanenko, O. P., Shevchenko, K. L., Shulha, V. A., Holovchanska, O. D.
Copyright (c) 2017 Yanenko, O. P., Shevchenko, K. L., Shulha, V. A., Holovchanska, O. D.
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http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1384Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:22:16 +0300Method for signal processing of biological trends based on wavelet analysis
http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1396
In this paper the approach for biomedical trends processing on signals of arterial blood saturation was proposed. This technique additionally could be applied to settle the problem of false alarms. Analysis based on dyadic wavelet transform was used for solving of this issue. Analysis of sensitivity and specifcity for modeled signals was performed. The signals contained patterns which could be interpreted as false alarms on 80, 85, 90, 95% SpO2. Experiment have given sensitivity 99% for 1-3 levels of decomposition and specifcity 30% for Haar wavelet.Bodilovskyi, O. K., Popov, A. O.
Copyright (c) 2017 Бодiловський О. К., Попов А. О.
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http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1396Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:22:16 +0300The delta-models of reactive elements and low-pass filters
http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1404
Frequency limitations of lumped and distributed reactive elements traditional models are considered. Based on equivalent ciruit of infinitely short transmission line section inductance and capacitance models with properties correspond to delta-function are received. These models called delta-models are without frequency restrictions. In the delta-model graphic designation delta-function length is directly proportional to inductance or capacitance value. Unlike to ordinary graphic designations delta-models allow to represent scheme reactivities values ratios. Traditional models and delta-models reactive elements frequency characteristics are compared. It is found that because of frequency limitations traditional planar microstrip quasi-lumped reactive elements characteristics have substantial errors. Considerable reduction of errors is ensured by microstrip quasi-lumped reactive elements on the basis of three-dimensional inhomogeneities. Based on reactive elements delta-models Butterworth and Chebyshev low-pass filters delta-models are presented. Low-pass filter delta-model "prompt" possibility of filter selectivity increasing. Frequency characteristics of Chebyshev low-pass filter designed on traditional planar microstrip quasi-lumped reactive elements and three-dimensional inhomogeneities are given.Nelin, E. A., Shulha, A. V., Zinher, Ya. L.
Copyright (c) 2017 Нелін Є.А., Шульга А.В., Зінгер Я.Л.
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http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1404Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:22:17 +0300Models of optimum multidimensional signals in the solid systems
http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1374
Models of optimum multidimensional discrete signals using novel design based on the “perfect” vector combinatorial configurations, namely the concept of Ideal Ring Bundles (IRB)s for development of new directions in fundamental and applied research in vector information technologies presented. IRB means an n-stage cyclic sequence of semi-measured terms, e.g. integers for which the set of all circular sums enumerates row of natural numbers by fixed times. Development of vector multidimensional models and techniques, based on the remarkable geometric properties of rotational symmetry-asymmetry relationships allows configure optimum multidimensional control systems for reproduce the maximum number of combinatorial varieties in the systems with a limited number of basis vectors. The modular vector sums of connected basis vectors of an IRB-space enumerate the set of t-coordinates specified with respect to t-dimensional cyclic frame reference exactly R-times. The remarkable technical merits of IRB–space, which properties hold for the same set of the IRB-monolithic vector code in varieties permutations of its terms is demonstrated, and method for design of two- or multidimensional vector signals coded based on the optimum binary monolithic code is presented. Proposed vector models of optimum multidimensional discrete signals provide, essentially, a new approach to generalize them to great class of optimized problems in radio-telecommunications, navigation and vector information technology. Moreover, the optimization embedded in the underlying combinatorial models. The favourable qualities of the Optimum Multidimensional Ring code provides breakthrough opportunities to apply them to numerous branches of science and advanced technology, with direct applications to vector data telecommunications, vector encoded design, and optimal vector information technology.Riznyk, V. V.
Copyright (c) 2017 BULLETIN of National Technical University of Ukraine. Series RADIOTECHNIQUE. RADIOAPPARATUS BUILDING
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http://radap.kpi.ua/en/radiotechnique/article/view/1374Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:22:17 +0300