Improving Parameters of Resonator on Open- and Short-Circuited Stubs
Keywords:resonator, transmission line, open-circuited stub, short-circuited stub
Introduction. Resonators are used for narrowband filtering and signal generation. Resonator on open-circuited stubs is widely used. Compared to this resonator, a resonator on open- and short-circuited stubs has the following advantages: twice as short; there are no responses at zero and doubled frequencies. However, due to a significant disadvantage — very small length of the short-circuited stub — such a resonator has not become widespread. The purpose of this article is to improve the design and electrical parameters of the resonator on open- and short-circuited stubs.
1 Conventional resonator on open- and short-circuited stubs. Features of the open-circuit stub equivalent capacitance and the transmission response (TR) of the resonator on open- and short-circuit stubs are considered. The equivalent capacitance frequency dependence leads to significant capacitance increasing at resonance. As a result, a high quality factor is achieved. However, such capacitance corresponds to a small inductance and, accordingly, unacceptably small length of the short-circuited stub. The disadvantage of the conventional resonator is also the low value of the stub characteristic impedance.
2 Resonator with increased length of short-circuited stub. In the article it is proposed two design decisions to overcome these disadvantages. It is shown that in contrast to the conventional decision with the same stub impedances, in the case of different impedance stubs — high-impedance open- and low-impedance short-circuited — the short-circuited stub is noticeably longer. The TR of two variants — 1 and 2 — resonator on different impedance stubs is given. The variants differ in the stub characteristic impedances values: variant 1 satisfy values for two-dimensional microstrip elements, and variant 2 — three-dimensional. The variant 2 has longer short-circuited stub and higher signal suppression in the suppression bands. Compared to the conventional decision, the length of the short-circuited stub in the variants 1 and 2 is 2.2 and 3.2 times longer.
3 Resonator with transmission line section. The second of the proposed decisions is the introduction into the resonator design the section of main transmission line. It is shown that in the case of a high-impedance section the resonator quality factor increases. The resonator TR with quarter wavelength and half wavelength sections, which increase the quality factor by 3 and 4 times, is compared with the case without sections.
4 Results discussion. The proposed decisions make it possible to overcome disadvantages of the conventional resonator. The resonator based on these decisions has a length and width of λ0/4 (λ0— resonant wavelength), the length of the short-circuited stub of λ0/16 (in the conventional design — λ0/43).
Resonator characteristics are improved in the case of range extension of the stubs characteristic impedances. For microstrip resonator design a significant impedances range extension is provided by three-dimensional elements.
Conclusion. The proposed decisions make it possible to improve the design and electrical parameters of the resonator on open and short-circuited stubs by increasing the length of the short-circuited stub, stubs characteristic impedances and quality factor. The obtained quality factor formulas allow defining the resonator design parameters in the first approximation.
Matthaei G. L., Young L. and Jones E. M. T. (1980). Design of Microwave Filters, Impedance-Matching Networks, and Coupling Structures. Norwood, Artech House, 1096 p.
Rizzi A. P. (1988). Microwave Engineering Passive Circuits. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall, 640 p.
Pozar D. M. (2011). Microwave Engineering, 4th ed. N. Y., Wiley, 752 p.
Hong J.-S. (2011). Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Applications, 2nd ed. N. Y., Wiley, 656 p.
Joines W. T., Palmer W. D. and Bernhard G. T. (2013). Microwave Transmission Line Circuits. Norwood, MA., Artech House, 320 p.
Hosoya K., Tanaka S., Amamiya Y., Niwa T. and Shimawaki H. (1999). A low phase-noise 18-GHz HBT oscillator utilizing a (λ/4±δ) open stubs resonator. Asia Pacific Microwave Conference. APMC'99. Microwaves Enter the 21st Century. Conference Proceedings, pp. 64-67. DOI: 10.1109/APMC.1999.828049.
Quendo C., Rius E. and Person C. (2003). Narrow bandpass filters using dual-behavior resonators. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 51, Iss. 3, pp. 734-743. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2003.808729.
Gómez-García R., Muñoz-Ferreras J.-M. and Psychogiou D. (2019). Dual-Behavior Resonator-Based Fully Reconfigurable Input Reflectionless Bandpass Filters. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 29, Iss. 1, pp. 35–37. DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2018.2884151.
Zheng P., Peng Y. and Han X. (2019). Wideband Bandpass Filter with Controllable Bandwidth and High Selectivity Using Dual-Behavior Resonators and Coupled Lines. IEEE 5th International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC), pp. 294–297. DOI: 10.1109/ICCC47050.2019.9064429.
Yang Z., Cheng J., Wang J., Shang H., and Gao Q. (2021). A DBR Microstrip Dup-Lexer Based on Improved Microstrip Cross-Shaped Resonators. 2nd China International SAR Symposium (CISS), pp. 1–8. DOI: 10.23919/CISS51089.2021.9652311.
Wu Z., Shi G., Lu X., Liang R., Wen X., Wang J., et al. (2021). A W-band air-filled coaxial bandpass filter employing micro metal additive manufacturing technology. Int. J. RF Microw. Comput.-Aided Eng., Vol. 31, Iss. 1, e22768. DOI:10.1002/mmce.22768.
Sánchez-Soriano M. Á., Quéré Y., Saux V. Le, Marini S., Reglero M. S., Boria V. E. and Quendo C. (2019). Peak and Average Power Handling Capability of Microstrip Filters. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 67, Iss. 8, pp. 3436–3448. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2019.2919509.
Allanic R., Berre D. Le, Quendo C., Chouteau D., Grimal V., Valente D. and Billoué J. (2021). Switchable DBR Filters Using Semiconductor Distributed Doped Areas (ScDDAs). Electronics, Vol. 9, Iss. 12, 2021. DOI: 10.3390/electronics9122021.
Feng W., Shi Y., Ma X., Shen Y., Che W., Xue Q. and Wu L.-S. (2019). 28-GHz High-Selectivity Bandpass Filters with Dual-Behavior Resonators Using GaAs Technology. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 47, Iss. 12, pp. 5277–5282. DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2019.2950708.
Feng W., Ma X., Shi Y., Shi S. and Che W. (2020). High-Selectivity Narrow- and Wide-band Input-Reflectionless Bandpass Filters with Intercoupled Dual-Behavior Resonators. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 48, Iss. 2, pp. 446–454. DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2020.2968481.
Qian Z.-Y. and Chen J.-X. (2019). Compact bandpass filter using CMRC-based dual-behavior resonator. Int. J. RF Microw. Comput.-Aided Eng., Vol. 29, Iss. 7, e21719. DOI: 10.1002/mmce.21719.
Bidenko P. S., Nelin E. A., Nazarko A. I. and Adamenko Yu. F. (2015). Quasi-lumped reactive elements based on crystal-like discontinuities. Radioelectronics and Communications Systems, Vol. 58, Iss. 11, pp. 515–521. DOI: 10.3103/S0735272715110059.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Юрій Васильович Непочатих
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).